Land certification fixes the gender disparity in compensation. Women without land certification are 25% less likely to receive compensation, but land certification changes this. Most likely because certification increases bargaining power.
There was a North, South split. Land certification was more impactful in the North, which may suggest that the north is driving the effects observed.
Non-market transactions reduce productivity. Missing income from rentals represents 5% on average of total household income. For the lowest quintile however, this is 12%.
Utilised the VARHS survey. A panel survey conducted every two years from 2008-2016. It is a representative sample of the rural population. 2131 households sampled over the five years. Not representative of provinces.
It can be considered descriptive as there is no natural experiment involved in the process. The paper cannot confirm causality but states there is a high level of correlation. Also observed the impact of an already established land certification process, not the creation of a brand new programme, so results may be different elsewhere.
Luciano Ayala-Cantu, Bruno Morando, (2020) ‘Rental markets, gender, and land
certificates: Evidence from Vietnam’, Food Policy, Volume 94