Pacific Men: how the feminist gap explains hostility

This research demonstrates that attitudes to gender equality, not biological sex, explain attitudes towards other nationalities and religious groups.

Research Findings

The gender gap in attitudes to foreign policy is well established in public opinion literature. Studies have repeatedly reported that women tend to be more peaceful and less militaristic than men. This article reexamines attitudes of individuals in relation to foreign policy and pits the gender gap against the largely forgotten feminist gap.

We argue that the individual-level relationship between gender equality attitudes on the one hand, and tolerance and benevolence on the other, is under-researched, but also that key contributions about the effects of feminism have been mostly ignored in research on the gender gap in public opinion.

We return to the notion of a causal relationship between gender equality attitudes, and peaceful attitudes, and of a feminist gap that also exists among men. In a series of novel empirical tests, we demonstrate that attitudes to gender equality, not biological sex, explain attitudes towards other nationalities and religious groups.

Using individual-level survey data from five countries around the Pacific: China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States of America, we show that both men and women who reject gender equality are much more hostile both to other nations and to minorities in their own country.

Key Recommendations

* It is important to focus in research and in practical actions on the role of masculinity
* Create positive role models (positive way of being a men in favour of gender equality)
* take into account the different ways in which masculinity is produced and reproduced – recruiters in organizations (i.e. army; foreign ministry)must consider who they are recruiting in order to avoid the perpetuation of sexism, militarized masculinity and gender inequality.
* organizations supporting Youth: they should analyze and promote positive role models within youth groups–> creating a gender equal culture from the beginning

Implementation Examples

It can be used as foundation to create positive role models (positive way of being a men in favour of gender equality)in particular in the Youth and in organizations characterized by a high level of toxic/militarized masculinity (i.e. Army)

Methodology

Individual level survey data from five countries around the Pacific: China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States of America.

Data: they come from the Pew Global Attitudes Project (PGAP), a series of worldwide public opinion surveys which began in 2001.

Core Concepts

Core concepts: Feminist gap; Gender gap and masculinity (Masculine Honor Culture).
They were defined through secondary data and personal qualitative research conducted on the field (China, Indonesia, USA, Japan, South Korea)

Limitations

* This research relied on pre-existing data
* Time and countries: the factors examined certainly changed over time