Many reports pointed out the deprivation of land by such economic concessions in Cambodia. In Northern Laos, there are different types of contracts arrangements made between the companies, district offices and the communities as well as individual farmers. With the drastic decrease in rubber price, the relationships between the companies and the farmers are also changing.
In Cambodia, there was no option for farmers to have contracts with the company that took over from the land concessions, as the indigenous land use system was not recognised. All villagers lost large chunks of their land, but women lost almost all of their land. Women lost their customary land rights during the rubber concession and land registration. Loss of land has left women more housebound while men engage in wage labour.
In Laos, arrangement have been diverse often dependent on difficulty of the terrain and complex local governance system. Initial idea was good. However implementation has not gone smoothly. Rented out to a Chinese company which works faster and more efficiently but often leaves villagers left behind. More farmers planted rubber privately and they had more negotiation power with the company. Women’s work load increased, often engaging in wage labour, however their decision making power has not seemed to increase alongside workload.
In both cases the state facilitated the private company investment and land concessions.
130 households as part of the Cambodian study with 10 follow up in-depth interviews and a group discussion. In Laos, 8 villagers were studied with 306 respondents with a following two rounds of in-depth interviews.
However, worth noting that the situation changes rapidly, so active monitoring is important. The research was conducted during a price decrease in rubber, so the Chinese company were not enforcing contracts strictly, this could change in the future however.